Leveling in topography
When a set of operations is performed to determine the elevation of one or more points with respect to a horizontal position, it is known as leveling in surveying.
These measurements and calculations allow to determine the heights of the terrain points and their difference in level. In addition, through this alignment the stake out and altimetric survey that are so important for the execution and start-up of a project is carried out.
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What is topography leveling?
The leveling in topography consists of determining the elevation differences between the various points of a terrain. Unlike the topography itself, whose representation is flat, in leveling greater care must be taken to make mistakes, since in altimetry there are different reference surfaces, the most used being the reference of mean sea level.
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Types of topographic leveling
Topographic leveling was classified in earlier times according to the altimetric methods used taking into account the zenith view. However, in current times it is made up of those mentioned below:
- Geometric leveling
This type of leveling is the most widely used because it allows greater precision at different elevations. This method consists of determining the difference in altitude between the points displayed by horizontal optical or electronic level, which are oriented in vertical sights. To carry out this type of leveling, an instrument known as Topographic Level or Equialtimeter is used, which allows determining the difference in level between two points.
- Trigonometric leveling
When you want to determine the difference in height between two points by measuring the horizontal or inclined distance, trigonometric leveling is applied. This is known to be an efficient and fast way in those terrains that have more failures or abrupt elevation changes, either because they are forested or mountainous and this characteristic is visualized at first instance.
In the execution, a Total Station is used as a work instrument. This is the most accurate device used in construction. But, for its precision to be high, it must only be handled by certified professionals for its maneuvering.
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- Expedited leveling
Given that this type of leveling allows obtaining lower quality accuracies, it is rarely used. To put it into practice, the barometer and the altimeter are used. They both measure atmospheric pressure.
In other words, atmospheric conditions have a considerable influence, which is why its measurements vary continuously in space and time.
- GPS leveling
Leveling by G.P.S. techniques It is one of those that offers less precision compared to the previous ones. On the other hand, it presents a drawback for using two reference surfaces, since the G.P.S. performs its sounding on the ellipsoid that makes its measurements on the earth's surface. It is important that the instruments have dual-frequency and multiple-channel receivers, that is, a high-precision receiver.
In turn, the geoid takes its dimensions on an equipotential surface. This type of leveling has come to replace barometric leveling, since it has acquired its methods unconsciously.
Topography grade measures the elevations or altitudes of points on the surface. Know the terrain of your project with Global Mapping. Request your budget today and access a service of the highest quality.